The Crusades: 1095 to 1289

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Bibliography 
The Crusades
The Crusades
Rashi
Rashi
Saladin
Saladin
Fredrick II
Fredrick II


The Crusades were a series of intermittent military campaigns sanctioned by various Popes in the Middle Ages, beginning in 1095.

The goal was to gain access to the holy sites in the Holy Land that were under Muslim control.

The First Crusade saw Jerusalem fall to the Christians in 1099. It took Muslims nearly half a century to respond under the leadership of Salah al-Din (Saladin).

Life for the Jews during the crusades was no picnic. One of the most prominent Jews during the crusades was Rabbi Solomon ben Isaac (Rashi). During the First Crusade he had an encounter with the leader of the French knights. Rashi, predicted a short lived success for his campaign.

Control over the Holy Lands went back and forth and after the failure of the Fifth Crusade in 1221, hope for Christian success in the East was centered upon Frederick II, the new Holy Roman Emperor. After years of delays he lead a Crusade in 1228.